Feline Health Glossary 2 :: Hematology and Biochemistry
 

This page will focus on normal feline hematologic and biochemical elements for healthy kittens and adult cats. It will also explain enzyme levels and what their functions are in relation to your kitty's health. Page 3 will focus on a vaccination schedule.
 
 

FELINE HEMATOLOGIC and BIOCHEMICAL VALUES
(NORMAL VALUES FOR GROWING HEALTHY KITTENS)
(From birth to 17 weeks of age)

Hematology Parameter 0-2 Weeks 2-4 Weeks 4-6 Weeks 6-8 Weeks 8-9 Weeks 12-13 Weeks 16-17 Weeks
RBC 5.29
(4.81-5.77)
4.67
(4.47-4.87)
5.89
(5.43-6.35)
6.57
(6.05-7.09)
6.95
(6.77-7.13)
7.43
(6.97-7.89)
8.14
(7.60-8.68)
Hemoglobin 12.1
(10.9-13.3)
8.7
(8.3-9.1)
8.6
(8.0-9.2)
9.1
(8.5-9.7)
9.8
(9.4-10.2)
10.1
(9.5-10.7
11.0
(10.2-11.9)
PCV 35.3
(31.9-38.7)
26.5
(24.9-28.1)
27.1
(25.5-28.7)
29.8
(27.2-32.4)
33.3
(31.9-34.7)
33.1
(29.9-36.3)
34.9
(32.7-37.1)
MCV 67.4
(63.6-71.2)
53.9
(51.5-56.3)
45.6
(43.0-48.2)
45.6
(43.6-47.6)
47.8
(46.0-49.6)
44.5
(40.9-48.1)
43.1
(40.1-46.1)
MCH 23.0
(21.8-24.2)
18.8
(17.2-20.4)
14.8
(13.7-16.0)
13.9
(13.3-14.5)
14.1
(13.7-14.5)
13.7
(12.9-14.5)
13.5
(12.7-14.3)
MCHC 34.5
(32.9-36.1)
33.0
(31.0-34.0)
31.9
(30.7-33.1)
30.9
(29.9-31.9)
29.5
(28.7-30.3)
31.3
(29.5-32.1)
31.6
(30.0-33.2)
WBC 9.67
(8.53-10.81)
15.31
(12.89-17.73)
17.45
(14.71-20.19)
18.07
(14.19-21.95)
23.68
(19.9-27.46)
23.10
(16.48-29.92)
19.7
(17.46-21.94)
Band Neutrophils 0.06
(0.02-0.10)
0.11
(0.03-0.19)
0.20
(0.08-0.32)
0.22
(0.06-0.38)
0.12
(0.0-0.30)
0.15
(0.01-0.27)
0.16
(0.020-0.30)
Neutrophils 5.96
(4.60-7.32)
6.92
(5.38-8.46)
9.57
(6.27-12.87)
6.75
(4.69-8.81)
11.0
(8.18-13.82)
11.0
(7.46-14.54)
9.74
(7.90-11.58)
Lymphocytes 3.73
(2.69-4.77)
6.56
(5.38-7.74)
6.41
(4.87-7.95)
9.59
(6.45-12.73)
10.17
(6.75-13.59)
10.46
(5.24-15.68)
8.7
(6.58-10.82)
Monocytes 0.01
(0.0-0.03)
0.02
(0.0-0.06)
0.0
(0.0)
0.01
(0.0-0.03)
0.11
(0.0-0.23)
0.0
(0.0)
0.02
(0.0-0.06)
Eosinophils 0.96
(0.10-1.82)
1.40
(1.08-1.72)
1.47
(0.97-1.97)
1.08
(0.68-1.48)
2.28
(1.66-2.90)
1.55
(0.85-2.25)
1.00
(0.62-1.38)
Basophils 0.02
(0.0-0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.02
(0.0-0.06)
0
(0)
0.03
(0.0-0.09)
0
(0)
Biochemical Values 2 Weeks 4 Weeks ---- ---- ---- ---- Adult
BSP ND+ ND+ ---- ---- ---- ---- 0-3
Bile Acids ND+ < 10++ ---- ---- ---- ---- 0-10
Bilirubin 0.03
(0.1-1.0)
0.2
(0.1-0.2)
---- ---- ---- ---- (0-0.2)
ALT 18
(11-24)
17
(14-26)
---- ---- ---- ---- (25-91)
AST 18
(8-48)
17
(12-24)
---- ---- ---- ---- (9-42)
ALP 123
(68-269)
111
(90-135)
---- ---- ---- ---- (10-77)
GGT 1
(0-3)
2
(0-3)
---- ---- ---- ---- (0-4)
Protein 4.4
(4.0-5.2)
4.8
(4.6-5.2)
---- ---- ---- ---- (5.8-8.0)
Albumin 2.1
(2.0-2.4)
2.3
(2.2-2.4)
---- ---- ---- ---- (2.5-3.0)
Cholesterol 229
(164-443)
361
(222-434)
---- ---- ---- ---- (150-270)
Glucose 117
(76-129)
110
(99-112)
---- ---- ---- ---- (63-144)

ND+ Not determined
++ <  = less than


HEMATOLOGY - The Complete Blood Count

The most common blood test performed to determine information on hydration status, anemia, infection, the blood's clotting ability, and the ability of the immune system to respond. An essential test for kitties with fevers, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, pale gums, or loss of appetite. Surgery patients may require a CBC to detect bleeding disorders or other abnormalities.

  • HCT (Hematocrit):  Measures the percentage of red blood cells to detect anemia and dehydration
  • Hb and MCHC (Hemoglobin and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration):  These are the oxygen-carrying pigments of red blood cells
  • WBC (White Blood Cell Count):  Measures the body's immune cells. Increases or decreases indicate certain diseases or infections
  • GRANS and L/M (Granulocytes and Lymphocytes/Monocytes): These are specific types of white blood cells
  • EOS (Eosinophilic):  These are a specific type of white blood cells that may indicate allergic or parasitic conditions
  • PLT (Platelet Count):  Measures cells that form blood clots
  • RETICS (Reticulocytes):  These are immature red blood cells. High levels indicate regenerative anemia
  • FIBR (Fibrinogen):  This is an important clotting factor.

Normal Feline Hematologic Values
(For Healthy Adult Cats)
 
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 8.0-15.0
PCV (%) 24-45
RBC (/ul) 5-10
MCV (fl) 39-55
MCH (pg) 13-18
MCHC (g/dl) 30-36
Reticulocytes (% of RBC) 0-0.4
WBC (/ul) 5500-19500
Neutrophils (mature) (/ul) 2500-12500
Neutrophils (bands) (/ul) 0-300
Lymphocytes (/ul) 1500-7000
Monocytes (/ul) 0-850
Eosinophils (/ul) 0-1500
Basophils (/ul) rare
Platelets (/ul) 3.0-8.0
Plasma Proteins (g/dl) 6.0-8.0
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) 50-300

NOTE: Normal Reference Range Values vary with individual veterinary labs. Values also depend on the method of measurement, breed, sex, age and environment.
 


 

BIOCHEMISTRY - ENZYMES - What They Mean

Enzymes are mechanisms by which enzyme activity increases in plasma. When damage to an organ occurs, enzymes are released into the circulation. If the damage is acute such as that caused by a single exposure to a toxicant, the lesion is transient and enzymes leak from tissues during the period of active cell damage. Thereafter, repair processes begin and enzyme release declines and eventually ceases. Monitoring of enzyme activity can therefore be useful in determining whether or not a lesion is resolving. If blood samples are taken sequentially and the enzyme activity is falling, the implication is that active cell damage has ceased. If the activity remains elevated or increases, the implication is that damage is continuing

  • ALB (Albumin):  To investigate hepatic and renal function, the degree of hydration or protein losing enteropathies
  • ALKP (Alkaline Phosphatase):  An indicator of hepatic disease involving the biliary system
  • ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase):  To investigate hepatic damage
  • AMYL (Amylase): As an indicator of acute pancreatitis
  • AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase):  To investigate damage to liver, cardiac or skeletal muscle
  • Ca2+ (Calcium):  As an indicator of certain neoplasias, bone disease, parathyroid disease and eclampsia
  • CHOL (Cholesterol):  As an indicator of hypothyroidism
  • CK (Creatine Kinase):  To identify lesions in skeletal or cardiac muscle
  • CREA (Creatinine):  As an indicator of renal disease and/or an index of glomerular filtration rate
  • GGT (Gamma-Glutamyltransferase):  As an indicator of hepatic cholestasis or neoplasia
  • GLU (Glucose):  To investigate carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., diabetes mellitus)
  • LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase):  To investigate damage to liver, cardiac or skeletal muscle
  • LIPA (Lipase):  As an indicator of acute pancreatitis
  • Mg2+ (Magnesium):  To investigate the adrenal, thyroid and parathyroid glands
  • NH3 (Ammonia):  To detect a portosystemic shunt (i.e., hepatic dysfunction)
  • PHOS (Inorganic Phosphate):  As an indicator of the severity of renal disease or gastroenteritis
  • TBIL (Total Bilirubin):  To detect obstructive liver disease
  • TP (Total Protein):  To detect impaired renal and hepatic function, dehydration and gastrointestinal lesions
  • TRIG (Triglycerides):  To detect abnormalities in lipid metabolism (i.e., acute liver disease)
  • UREA / BUN (Urea):  As an indicator of renal disease

Normal Feline Biochemical Values
(For Healthy Adult Cats) 
 
Glucose 70-120
BUN 17-30
Creatinine 0.6-2.0
Calcium 8.8-10.4
Phosphorus 3.0-7.0
Sodium 146-158
Potassium 3.5-5.2
Chloride 114-126
Magnesium 1.90-2.28
Iron 70-140
Triglyceride 6-58
Cholesterol 87-171
Bilirubin (Total) 0.1-0.2
Bilirubin (Direct) 0-0.14
Bilirubin (Indirect) 0.09-0.20
Total Protein 5-8
Albumin 2.3-3.5
Globulin 2.6-5.0
ALP 10-100
ALT 10-50
AST 10-40
LDH 10-100
GGT ----
Amylase < 1,200
Lipase < 1
CK 26-140
CO2 20-30
pH 7.24-7.40

NOTE: Normal Reference Range Values vary with individual veterinary labs. Values also depend on the method of measurement, breed, sex, age and environment.


 

NORMAL FELINE UROLOGICAL VALUES

Color Yellow
Turbidity Clear
Specific Gravity 1.015-1.060
Osmolality 500-2800
Volume 22-30
Protein Negative
Ketones, glucose Negative
Urobilinogen Negative
Bilirubin Negative
pH 5.0-7.0

 

The following profiles are combinations of enzyme tests to detect suspected abnormalities, or to perform general profiles for specific problems. Profiles differ with individual veterinarians.
 

OTHER CHEMISTRY PROFILES

General Profile ALB, ALKP, ALT, CREA, GLU, TP, UREA/BUN
General/Geriatric Profile ALB, ALKP, ALT, AMYL, Ca2+, CHOL, CREA, GLU, PHOS, TBIL, TP, UREA/BUN
Pre-surgery Profile ALB, ALKP, ALT, CREA, GLU, PHOS, TBIL, TP, UREA/BUN
Gastrointestinal Profile ALB, CREA, NH3, TP, UREA/BUN, Na+K+Cl-
Cardiac Profile ALB, ALT, AST, CHOL, CK, CREA, GLU, LDH, TP, UREA/BUN, Na+K+Cl-
Endocrine Profile ALKP, ALT, AMYL, Ca2+, CHOL, CREA, GLU, LIPA, PHOS, TRIG, UREA/BUN, Na+K+Cl-
Hepatic Profile ALB, ALKP, ALT, GGT, NH3, TBIL, TP
Lipid Profile ALB, CHOL, GLU, TP, TRIG
Pancreatic Profile ALKP, ALT, AMYL, Ca2+, CHOL, GGT, GLU, LIPA, PHOS, TRIG, UREA/BUN
Renal Profile ALB, Ca2+, CREA, PHOS, TP, UREA/BUN, Na+K+Cl-

 

FELINE INFECTIOUS DISEASE / OTHER COMMON TESTS

TEST METHOD OF TESTING
FELV By titer (ELISA) or immuno-assay (Western Blot)
FIV By titer (ELISA) or immuno-assay (Western Blot)
FIP By titer (ELISA, IFA, or PCR)
PANLEUKOPENIA By IgG IgM
TOXOPLASMOSIS By titer (ELISA or IFA)
COCCIDIOSIS By fecal flotation
CRYPTOCOCCOSIS By titer (latex agglutination test)
HEARTWORM By antigen, antibody, or combo
FECAL EXAM To detect presence of larvae, tapeworms, roundworms, whipworms, giardia, other parasitic infection: by fecal float or fecal smear
SEROLOGY Examples: Calicivirus-antigen or culture; Chlamydia-direct FA; Herpes-direct FA
IMMUNOLOGY Conditions related to anemia, blood-borne parasites, heinz bodies, idiopathic immunosuppression may be tested through complete feline serology, i.e., Coombs, Hemobartonellosis-FIA, ANA
ENDOCRINOLOGY T3 (various), T4 (various), Free T4, cTSH, ACTH, Parathyroid, Aldosterone, Hormone, Cortisol, Dexamethezone Suppression, Insulin-Glucose Comparison

 

FELINE BLOOD TYPES

TYPE
(NUMBER OF FACTORS)
A, B, AB
(3)

Note: If you must have a lab testing performed, please make sure you understand the costs involved, the time it takes to receive results (especially if sent out-of-state), and what to expect from the results. In the case of feline infectious disease, you might feel more confident getting a second ELISA performed a few weeks later for the best determination. In the case of fecal exams, your vet may ask you to save a sample and bring it to his clinic as soon as possible for testing. If you cannot get a sample in immediately, it may be refrigerated for a few hours but the freshest sample possible would be best. Urine samples must be as fresh as possible, and if you cannot get the sample to your vet's clinic in a reasonable amount of time, your vet may suggest leaving your kitty at the vet's clinic temporarily until he can get a fresh sample, one that is uncontaminated for achieving the best test results. Please make sure you understand your vet's requests and comply to them quickly and as reasonably as possible. Your kitty is depending on you, and you will have better peace of mind when the results are achieved quickly and efficiently. Please ask your vet for more information.


 
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